• Stages of Reading Development

    Emergent Stage

    Fountas & Pinnell Levels A-C

    DRA Levels A-3

    Approximate Grade Levels K-1
    In the emergent stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

      • Begin to be aware that print carries a message
      • Know some sounds and names of the letters of the alphabet
      • Start to display directional movement (Left to right; top to bottom; return sweep)
      • Begin to establish one to one correspondence by finger pointing
      • Locate some known words
      • Depend heavily on picture clues
      • Recognize the difference between a letter and a word
      • Begin to use pattern and repetition of text to read
      • Use some letter sounds (beginning / ending)
      • Begin to use known, high frequency words to monitor reading
      • Respond to texts by linking meaning with their own experience

    Early / Developing Stage

    Fountas & Pinnell Levels D-G

    DRA Levels 4-12

    Approximate Grade Levels K-1

    In the early/developing stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

    • Have good control of early reading strategies (directionality; one to one word matching; locating known words)
    • Rely less on pictures and use more information from print
    • Begin to build a core of high-frequency words known automatically
    • Read familiar text with some phrasing and fluency
    • Start to attend to punctuation while reading
    • Read using more than one source of information
    • Begin to monitor own reading and self correct
    • Use phonetic clues to decode (initial-final sounds; simple chunks)
    • Begin to engage in discussions about what is read

    Transitional/Near-Fluent Stage

    Fountas & Pinnell Levels H-M

    DRA Levels 14-28

    Approximate Grade Levels 1-2

    In the transitional/near fluent stage of reading development, the student will display many of the following behaviors:

    • Use multiple sources of information (meaning; language structure; visual/graphophonic) and a variety of strategies (check; monitor; search; predict; confirm; self correct) to problem solve while reading
    • Make predictions and confirm or revise them while reading
    • Recognize the importance of monitoring reading for understanding
    • Use familar parts of words (beginning, middle, end) to problem-solve unknown words
    • Know a large core of high frequency words automatically
    • Read many punctuation marks appropriately
    • Read most texts with phrasing and fluency
    • Begin to read a greater variety of longer and more complex texts (fictional and informational)
    • Attend more to story structure and literary language
    • Engage in discussions about what is read
    • Begin to identify details from the text to support ideas in discussions

    Fluent Stage

    Fountas & Pinnell Levels N+ DRA Levels 30+ Approximate Grade Levels 3-4