• Research shows that narrative intervention that is contextualized (literacy based) showed greater improvement in answering questions, vocabulary, syntax, comprehenion and story retell/generation than decontextualized commercially available games and drill cards! (Brandel, 2014)

    The primary goal with literature-based language intervention is not to teach these students to read. Rather, the goal is to improve the many aspects of language (vocabulary knowledge, grammatical acceptability, grammatical complexity, pragmatic awareness, phonological awareness, conversation, and narration) that influence the ability to participate in, and profit from, instruction in general education classrooms in both oral and print modalities. (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006)

    "Almost any language objective can be taught within literature-based language intervention." (Gillam & Ukrainetz, 2006)


  • Books can be adapted to target a variety of speech and language goals.


    1. Confrontational Naming - labeling objects or actions (verbs)
    2. Use context clues to figure out the meaning of the word
    3. Make a word list of unfamiliar words and the definition
    4. Make a sentence using the word or provide examples

    Story Elements

    • Setting
    • Characters
    • Problem
    • Solution


    • Answering literal "wh" questions
      • Who - person, animal, character
      • What - thing
      • Where - place
      • When - time

    What Is inferencing?

    • inferencing is when you use clues from the story to figure out something that the author doesn't tell you
    • when you make an inference you need to be able to identify the clues that you used to explain

    Making Inferences

    • What I read...
    • What I know...
    • What I infer... 

    Sequencing and Story Starters..

    • First.... ____________
    • Next...  ____________
    • Then... ____________
    • Last...  ____________

    Syntax (Sentence Formulation)

    • Verb Tenses
      • past (ex. I jumped)
      • present (ex. I am jumping)
      • future (ex. I will jump)
    • Word Order
      • Subject - Verb (ex. The boy jumps)
      • Subject - Verb - Object - (The boy jumps on the trampoline)